ISO 16312-1:2016 provides technical criteria and guidance for evaluating physical fire models (i.e. laboratory combustion devices and operating protocols) used in effluent toxicity studies for obtaining data on the effluent from products and materials under fire conditions relevant to life safety. Relevant analytical methods, calculation methods, bioassay procedures and prediction of the toxic effects of fire effluents can be referenced in ISO 19701, ISO 19702, ISO 19703, ISO 19706 and ISO 13344. Comparisons are detailed in ISO 29903. Prediction of the toxic effects of fire effluents can be referenced in ISO 13571 and ISO/TR 13571‑2.