IWA 16:2015 defines the framework for methods for coherent quantification of CO2e emissions of freight transport (total and intensity) on the following three levels:
1) Level of operation of transport chain element (TCE).
2) Level of network including company level.
3) Level of cargo.
IWA 16:2015 provides a gap analysis identifying starting points and recommending further specification and possible alignment on mode specific and intermodal levels, including transhipment centres and warehouses. Consideration needs to be given to the practicality of the methods and the intended use of the outputs to the potential user groups, particularly providers of freight transport and logistic services as well as their customers.