ISO 5163:2014 establishes the rating of liquid spark-ignition engine fuel in terms of an arbitrary scale of octane numbers using a standard single-cylinder, four-stroke cycle, variable-compression ratio, carburetted, CFR engine operated at constant speed. Motor octane number (MON) provides a measure of the knock characteristics of motor fuels in automotive engines under severe conditions of operation. The motor octane number provides a measure of the knock characteristics of aviation fuels in aviation piston engines, by using an equation to correlate to aviation-method octane number or performance number (lean-mixture aviation rating).
ISO 5163:2014 is applicable for the entire scale range from 0 MON to 120 MON, but the working range is 40 MON to 120 MON. Typical motor fuel testing is in the range of 80 MON to 90 MON. Typical aviation fuel testing is in the range of 98 MON to 102 MON.